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Enviromental contamination of heavy metals and chrysotile asbestos in the Munzur and Pulumur streams (Tunceli, Turkey)

Okay Çimen, Fatma Toksoy Köksal, Ayten Öztüfekçi Önal, Yüksel Örgün Tutay


The Munzur and Pülümür streams are essential water supplies of the Tunceli Province (Turkey). Chromite bearing ultramafic rocks and Zn-Cu mineral- ization products are possible causes of the toxic elements enrichment in the streams. Sediment and soil samples were collected along these streams to deter- mine the level of toxic element enrichment. Multi-element normalized patterns of the samples with respect to the upper crust display enrichments in Cr, Ni, Co, Cs, W, Pb, As, Sb, Au, Hg and Cr, Ni, Co, W, for the Munzur and Pülümür streams, respectively. Also, the calculated Igeo index values show the pres- ence of contaminations of Cr, Ni, As, Hg, Cd and Cr, Ni, As in the Munzur and Pülümür streams, respectively. Elemental grouping in the samples indicates two different effects related to the ultramafic host rocks and mineralization products in the study area. Additionally, mineralogical XRD analyses exhibit the presence of chrysotile, plagioclase, quartz and calcite. The fibrous chrysotile and heavy metal contaminations must be considered as a threat for public health.


contamination; toxic elements; public health; Munzur and Pülümür streams; Turkey

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